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Short selling; Stock market speculation


Short selling; Stock market speculation

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Short-selling — a bet that a stock price will decline — is the practice of selling stock without owning it, hoping to buy it later at a lower price and thus make a profit.

It has often been blamed for forcing prices down in times of market stress, but the level of anger intensified in 2008 as the American government was forced to bail out major financial institutions, and the leaders of some investment banks asked for action to protect their shares.

Short-sellers said that the criticism directed at them, and any restrictions on their activity, was wrong-headed, arguing that they were among the first to raise the alarm about the risky mortgage lending practices that led to the current financial crisis.

To obtain shares to sell short, traders often borrow them from institutional investors, who receive small fees for lending their shares. The most criticized form of the practice is so-called naked short-selling. While short-sellers are supposed to borrow shares before selling them, sellers of naked shorts do not borrow. That saves the cost of borrowing, though the trader is still vulnerable to losses if the share price rises.

Opponents of short-selling say they believe that it can force share prices down and destroy confidence in a company that might otherwise survive. Regulators had long thought that the practice was crucial for efficient markets to function, but as financial stocks fell in the spring and summer of 2008, the Securities and Exchange Commission imposed temporary limits on short-selling of some of them.

On Sept. 18, 2008. the Financial Services Authority in Britain said that it would bar traders from taking new short positions in listed stocks of financial companies, and said that investors would have to disclose their short positions if those positions amounted to at least 0.25 percent of a company’s outstanding shares.

Later that day, the Securities and Exchange Commission issued a temporary ban on short sales of 799 financial stocks, a move against traders who had sought to profit from the financial crisis by betting against bank shares.

The S.E.C.'s chairman, Christopher Cox, imposed new rules to prevent brokerage firms from selling a stock short if they previously had sold the stock short without having borrowed it.

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Дисциплина: «Английский»

Тема: «Short selling; Stock market speculation»

Тип: «Реферат»

Объем: 10* страниц

Год: 2013

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Твoрческая рабoта «Short selling; Stock market speculation»
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